Human activities are reshaping biological communities and affecting ecosystem functioning across the Earth. Climate change, land use change and habitat fragmentation, overexploitation, pollution and invasive alien species have been recognized as the most important and widespread direct anthropogenic causes of biodiversity change (IPBES, 2019). This page provides a brief overview of the impacts of each factor on biodiversity, with a focus on the European Union. It provides links to the main assessments and reports, as well as to the main projects, alliances, platforms, etc. active in these areas.