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1. POLICY SETTING
- The Lithuanian GI strategy is in line with the spatial system developed in the country, called nature frame. It is legitimized by the Law on Environmental Protection, the Law on Protected Areas, the Master Plan of the Territory of the Republic of Lithuania, and is defined in master (complex) plans at all levels. General principles for formation of the nature frame areas, requirements for their protection, management, and usage are defined by the Regulations of the Nature Frame, approved by order of the Minister of Environment. The areas of the nature frame in Lithuania cover approximately 60% of the total country area. The nature frame is a coherent network of natural ecological compensation areas ensuring the ecological balance of landscape, natural links between protected areas, other areas or habitats of importance for environmental protection, as well as migration of fauna and flora between them. The concept of the nature frame is universal – it is directed towards protection of geo-ecological complex – both living (biodiversity), and inanimate nature, recreational resources. The objectives of the nature frame are the following: to create a coherent network of natural ecological compensation areas, in order to create preconditions for the preservation of biological diversity; to link the habitats of greatest bioecological significance, environment thereof as well as the areas necessary for fauna and flora migration; to protect natural landscape and natural recreational resources; to increase the country’s forest coverage. When defining the nature frame, the need to ensure the ecological integrity of the Natura 2000 network is considered. The nature frame is comprised of the geological watershed, geo-ecosystems’ stabilisation centres and axes, migration corridors. The nature frame may include areas of European, national, regional and local importance. According to the degree of naturalness and ability to perform the function of compensation, the territorial planning documents identify the areas of reliable, limited, low geo-ecological potential, and degraded areas. For the purposes of protection of biological diversity, an ecological network may be identified in areas of the nature frame, covering habitats of the greatest bioecological significance, as well as corridors for fauna and flora migration.
- The Action Plan on Conservation of Landscape and Biodiversity (Ministry of Environment) for the period 2015–2020 sets a strategic goal for Lithuania to halt biodiversity loss and degradation of ecosystems and their services and, where possible, to restore them. According to the Action Plan, by 2020, it is planned to provide more detailed regulation of the nature frame structure, the principles of its formation, to prioritize the activities to be developed in the nature frame areas, to update the methodology of the nature frame planning, to develop a series of municipal projects on improvement of landscape and ecological condition in the nature frame areas, to develop the knowledge base on the condition of ecosystems and their services.
- Lithuania adopted its National Environment Protection Strategy (approved by order of Parliament of the Republic of Lithuania) in 2015. The Strategy lays down the country’s environmental protection vision up to 2050 and its implementation goals up to 2030. The strategy identifies four key long-term environmental protection policies, which are the sustainable use of natural resources and waste management, improvement of the quality of the environment, maintenance of the stability of ecosystems and mitigation of climate change as well as adapting to environmental changes caused by climate change. The plan states that the formation of the natural frame and the ecological network should be defined in documents on integrated territorial planning at all levels; also, plans for the maintenance of separate areas of the nature frame and/or the ecological network should be drawn up and implemented, and these plans should provide for specific measures to preserve the landscape structure, strengthen ecosystem functions and services, conserve species and natural habitats and improve conditions for their existence.
- The special document on territorial planning – the National Landscape Management Plan (Ministry of Environment) – was approved in 2015. It establishes the system of landscape management areas, provides the regulations on landscape management at national level. This plan presents valuable information about natural and cultural landscape values of national importance, its physical, ecological, visual structure, and specifies the directions of landscape usage, protection, and management to ensure sustainable landscaping process.
- In 2017, the programme for preparation of a new generation Master Plan of the Territory of the Republic of Lithuania has been developed. The new Master plan of the Territory of the Respublic of Lithuania is planned to be prepared by 2020, and to replace the Master Plan of the Territory of the Republic of Lithuania approved in 2002.
- The areas of the nature frame, defined in Lithuania, cover approximately 60 % of the total country area. The part of the nature frame areas in individual local municipalities varies from 35-40 % to 75-80 % of their total area. The specific part of the areas with low geo-ecological potential or degraded areas in the nature frame areas is not known. However, the National Landscape Management Plan defines four major districts with problematic landscape, which require special attention and compensatory investments (district with active karst phenomena; Sūduva agrarian district; Žiemgala agrarian district; Curonian Lagoon district), as well as 217 smaller ranges, facing the needs to improve the geo-ecological protection of the landscape. The Regulations on the Nature Frame, approved by the order of the Minister of Environment, provide that in the nature frame areas, priority should be given to: increase of overall forest coverage of the territory, establishment of greeneries, protection and plantation of greeneries in road sanitary protection zones, agricultural and urban areas; technical measures, reducing the impact of land drainage, providing conditions for bog formation, restoration of streams or their damaged sections, natural watercourses, natural habitats and species habitats and populations, and their migration routes; restoration of degraded areas, works of cleaning up from contamination, removal of abandoned industrial and large agricultural objects and equipment, unused structures. Organic farming and application of agri-environmental measures, as well as the usage of territories for extensive recreation are promoted.
- In Lithuania, the protected areas cover approximately 17.63 % of the total country area (including Natura 2000 areas). In these areas, ecosystem restoration, and improvement of ecosystems’ condition, is provided by preparing management plans for individual locations.
2. IMPLEMENTATION OF GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE
Local level project examples
Utena district municipality project „U– parks, U – turn we love“ - Utena is the 10thlargest Lithuanian town with a population of 39,840 (2016). The municipality made great efforts to save natural areas as public spaces. Combining the protection and management of the unique landscape, Utena District Municipality developed City Gardens in the town center, the Krašuona Riverside in the densely build up residential area, and Dauniškis and Vyžuona parks as central recreational areas. Starting from a small park reconstruction architectural contest, using only small municipal budget for its implementation, now Utena has 50 ha of developed parks – the actions are long lasting and cover the whole town area. Main outcomes of the project: 4 landscape management plans were prepared and implemented in a 50 ha area; the recreational infrastructure was created while preserving general structure of the landscape; the quality of water improved; the accessibility of landscape values grew, created new aesthetics, comfort for all social groups and different activities have raised the quality of the living environment, the information system was introduced in all parks; seminars and discussions for the public “Green spaces” were organized; parks have become a learning space for young professionals. All parks were planned in a manner to maintain and strengthen natural features of the expressive landscape, preserving natural continuity, the most important natural ecotypes and accommodating new plants due to different ecological conditions. Utena project “U– parks, U – turn we love” proves that the green network can be successfully preserved in an industrial town and fulfil both environmental and social functions.
- The regeneration project ‘Park of Architecture' involves, among other issues, the decontamination of a 78 ha brownfield site and construction of green spaces, etc. The regeneration of 'Žirmūnai Triangle' concerns a 52 ha neighbourhood in Vilnius and involves energy-efficient renovation, safeguarding green spaces, expanding bicycle and pedestrian infrastructures, etc.
Regional level project examples
- ECONAT - Development of Pilot Ecological Network through Nature Frame Areas in Southern Lithuania (09/2010 – 09/2014, total budget: € 766,260.00, coordinated by Lithuanian Fund for Nature) - A LIFE+ project for the establishment of a pilot ecological network in South Lithuania carried out activities for the protection of target species, the restoration of their habitats, the creation of an ecological network and education of local communities.
- LIFE Buveinių tvarkymas - Restoration of degrading habitats of Community interest in the protected areas of Lithuania (01/2012-12/2016, total budget: € 631,039.00) - The main aim was to restore and conserve the valuable juniper, heath and grassland habitats of the Salantas and Kurtuvenu national parks, including the Vijurku meadows (Dubysa river valley). Specifically, the project aimed to restore and maintain open scrublands, meadows and grassland habitats with their characteristic structure and species composition; establish conditions for grazing and the removal of low value shrubs and trees; provide follow-up care to ensure the good condition of the habitats; and facilitate access to the project`s Natura 2000 sites.
National level project examples
- Processing of scattered data on protected species and entering it into Single Protected Species Information System (12/2014– 04/2016, total budget: €144, 623.26, sponsored by EEA and Norway grants) - This project was intended for collection and analysis of information, stored in a dissipated way, gathered during scientific research and nature observations, including historical information about endangered species of animals, plants and mushrooms, and to systemize and consolidate these data into a unified Information system of protected species (ISPS) and in this way contribute to implementation of the programme ‘Biodiversity and ecosystems services’ of the 2009-2014 financial measure of Europe Economical Environment (EEE) in Lithuania.
- Development of wind energy and territories important to biodiversity (VENBIS) (02/2015–04/2017 total budget: € 340782.41, funded by EEA and Norway grants) - This project aimed to evaluate the possible biodiversity impacts of the most important areas for wind energy, especially on the most sensitive bird and bat species. During the project, the analysis of the bird and bat distribution, based on historical and new data was made, tools and techniques for conflict management were prepared, development perspectives of wind energy in different municipalities were evaluated. The outcomes of the project help to choose the areas where wind energy development would have a minimum negative impact on biodiversity
Cross-border project examples
- Building a framework for collective action in the management of the transboundary waters in Kaliningrad, Russia; Lithuania and Poland (September 2012 – August 2015) - Funded by Swedish Institute, implemented by SIWI (Sweden, coordinating institution), Northern Dimension Foundation (Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia), Institute of Economy of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Russia), Global Water Partnership (Poland and Lithuania) and the Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management (Sweden). The intention is to facilitate official dialogue, cooperation and investment on the shared river basin systems between the Kaliningrad Oblast, Poland, Lithuania and the broader Baltic Sea Community of actors, providing incentives for stakeholders to seek more information on how to transform degraded water resources into opportunities.
- Project – Secure green area and waterbasins in Zemgale and Northern Lithuania (Interreg, 2007-2013, total budget: € 1 156 700.42 ) - The project "Urban Green" aimed at the preservation of green areas and water basins in urban areas of Zemgale region and Northern Lithuania, investing in green infrastructure thus reducing urban pressure on environment and securing green areas for future generations. The environmental protection activities were carried out in 9 cities and towns: Jekabpils, Dobele, Plavinas, Jaunjelgava, Rokiskis, Birzai, Naujoji Akmene and Akmene, Birstonas. The project sought to increase a share of quality green areas within these cities and towns improving access to natural resources to the inhabitants of these cities, municipalities and tourists.
- Cross-border collaboration: Nine border municipalities in Latvia and Lithuania are cooperating under the motto “Let’s make our cities greener” in order to restore urban parks and green infrastructure; improve the wellbeing, awareness and engagement of citizens to maintain green areas in their neighbourhood; and enable city planners to integrate green infrastructure in urban space (CBD 2014). Emphasis is being placed on the collaboration between the architects and city planners of both countries in trying to find the best way to balance the aesthetics, ecology and functionality of the green territories. No less important is the environmental campaign inviting city residents to tidy up their homes, yards, and balconies as well as to keep track of the green health of nearby parks (Latvia-Lithuania Programme, n.d.).
3. MAINSTREAMING GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE
In Lithuania, there is the system of protected areas, which includes the areas of conservational protection priority (strict reserves, reserves and objects of heritage), areas of restorative protection priority (restorative plots, genetic plots), territories of ecological protection priority (zones of ecological protection), and complex protected areas (state parks, areas of biosphere monitoring). The protected areas in Lithuania cover approximately 17.63 % of the country area (including Natura 2000). Protected areas - the land and/or water areas which have clearly defined boundaries, an acknowledged scientific, ecological, cultural and other value and for which a special protection and use regime (procedure) has been introduced by legal acts. At national level, the protection and management of the protected areas is regulated by the Law on Protected Areas.
The EU Natura 2000 network is at the core of the EU's Green Infrastructure. By early 2016, 12.16% of the national land area of Lithuania was covered by Natura 2000 (EU average 18.1%), with Birds Directive SPAs covering 8.47% (EU average 12.3%) and Habitats Directive SCIs covering 9.40% (EU average 13.8%). The list of SPAs in Lithuania comprises 83 sites covering a total area of over 626 000 ha, while the list of SCIs consists of 410 sites covering 667 000 ha. The area of overlapping SPAs and SCIs is about 385 000 ha (European Commission, 2017).
The Law on Land provides that agricultural lands must be used, following the special conditions for land and forest usage, defined by legislation: the requirements of landscaping and environmental protection must be followed. While preparing the land management plans, it is necessary to localize the nature frame, to provide restrictions for economic activities, to suggest measures for soil protection and environmental quality improvement.
The aims of policy on agriculture, food agriculture, and rural development are defined in the Law on Agriculture, Food Agriculture, and Rural Development. The National policy on agriculture, food agriculture, and rural development seeks to protect the environment, improve its condition by applying agri-environmental measures, develop organic production and promote harmonized use of renewable natural resources; preserve the valuable forest ecosystems, increase forest coverage of Lithuania and improve the ecological and recreational value of landscape.
Protection of forest resources is ensured by Forestry Law. The forests of state significance belong to the state of Lithuania by exceptional property right. According to the law, the forests must be managed seeking to preserve biodiversity and provide conditions for its restoration. One third (32.6%) of Lithuania‘s territory is covered by forests (2,174 thousand hectares). According to national law, Lithuanian forests are attributed to four different management groups. National legislation requires a forest management plan for each forest holding. Only limited activity is allowed without a forest management plan. Forest management plans must take into account biodiversity features in the area when forest management measures are planned (BISE, 2017).
In 2004, an inventory of the key forest habitats started in Lithuania. These data help to ensure protection of the most valuable forest habitats, and to ensure that the benefits, paid for non-performance of economic activity in the forests, would be used in a targeted and effective manner.
Conflict between commercial agricultural or forestry activities and the management of land for nature protection has been identified as a challenge. This is especially where specific agricultural practices as pastures or forest conditions are no longer economically profitable (CBD, 2014).
The Law on Green Plots require forming the system of green areas, while preparing the master plans for the cities. System of green areas includes parks, squares, gardens of cities and towns, green connectors, and other greeneries. Upon the order of the Minister, the standards and requirements for green areas quota and arrangement of greeneries in the city structure are set. These standards must be followed, while preparing the complex or special territorial planning documents of any level. While preparing the detailed plans, the boundaries of the nature frame and ecological network, specified in the Master Plan, must be followed, giving their details, according to specific characteristics of the area and activity restrictions, provided in legislation. Furthermore, following the order of the Minister of Environment, the requirements for preparation of creation and management projects on greeneries are approved. Local municipalities are responsible for protection, management and creation of greeneries.
The Green Cities Index produced by Siemens and the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked Vilnius as one of 30 Europe’s greenest cities. Kaunas, the 2nd largest city in Lithuania, was amongst applicant countries for the European Green Capital Award 2015. Current challenges to major cities include derelict urban areas with poor quality of air, noise and traffic jams. City municipalities lack funds for the implementation of master plans, management of public spaces and blocks of multi-apartment buildings, improvement of communication and engineering infrastructure, or for taking care of derelict urban areas that require a change in their use (EC, 2017).
Vilnius is moving towards sustainable urban regeneration. This involves a number of projects, including the regeneration project ‘Park of architecture" (i.e. decontamination of a 78 ha brownfield site, construction of green spaces, etc.); and the regeneration of "Žirmūnai Triangle", which concerns a 52 hectare neighbourhood in Vilnius. It involves energy efficient renovation, safeguarding green spaces, expanding bicycle and pedestrian infrastructure. "Žirmūnai Triangle" is being carried out as a pilot innovative regeneration project, which could be subsequently applied in other parts of Lithuania (EC, 2017).
The National Environmental Protection Strategy, adopted in 2015, highlights the promotion of sustainable development of urbanised areas. The following issues relevant to GI are mentioned: improved territorial planning solutions; encouraging the reuse of areas for construction (conversion); conserving natural and semi-natural areas and cultural landscape; planting of green areas.
The Law on the Protected Areas and the Law on Territorial Planning provide that while preparing the territorial planning documents, taking into account the level of the planning documents, the system of nature frame, supplemented by the ecological network of local importance and green areas system, must be developed. At the national level, the nature frame is legalized in the Master Plan. Special territorial planning documents are prepared for protected areas.
The main aims of water protection are established in the Law on Water. The main strategic aims in this field are: to reduce water pollution by the wastewater of cities and towns, to reduce pollution of water from agricultural lands, to reduce pollution of water by surface storm water, etc.
Disaster risk reduction
While implementing the EU Water Framework Directive, 4 river basin management plans and the programmes for implementation of their measures have been developed. While implementing the Flood Directive, the flood threat and flood risk maps have been prepared. These maps are designed for identification of flooding; for assessment of possible negative consequences, related with floods. Lithuanian Geological Survey under the Ministry of Environment collects data on geological processes and phenomena, karst zone activity.
Marine and coastal policy
The Law on Environmental Protection sets general policy principles for the development and sustainable use of resources common to the whole Lithuanian territory, including the coastal zone of Lithuania. Law on the Coastal Zone defines policy objectives specific for the coastal zone and its resources and ensures the integration and harmonisation of sectoral policies. Through the Law, the Government regulates all kind of activities in the coastal zone, starting from the state and down to the municipal level. The main principles for the integrated coastal zone management are set out in the Coastal Zone Management Programme for 2014-2020 (approved by Order No D1-360 of the Minister of Environment on 16.4.2014) and are the following: conservation of natural coastal landscapes and coastal processes; integration of coastal conservation and coastal use objectives; coastal protection measures implemented in one section of the coast cannot harm another section of the coast; differentiation of coastal management measures according to specific priorities for coastal conservation and wise use on a particular coastal strip; monitoring and coastal development.
The Special Plan of the Continental part of Coastal Strip (approved by Order No D1-601 of the Minister of Environment on 28.7.2011) introduces zoning of the territories under environmental protection priorities. The territory of the Plan covers 100-858 m landwards from the mean waterline, whereas the length of the Coastal strip covers 39 km.
The Law on Environmental Impact Assessment provides the list of economic activities, which require environmental impact assessment or selection. Environmental impact assessment is also required, when implementation of the planned economic activity can influence the territories of the European ecological network “Natura 2000”.
Tourism and leisure
The National Strategy for Environmental Protection (approved by Resolution No XII - 1626 of the Parliament 16.4.2015) emphasizes that tourism development should have minimal environmental impact. The Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is carried out when preparing plans, programmes and spatial planning documents for tourism development activities which may have significant effects on environment.
When planning to carry out activities, which require setting or specification of boundaries of sanitary protection zones, health impact assessment is implemented. The legislation, regulating the management of greeneries, indicates the species of plants, which are forbidden to be used in city green areas, as well as the minimum area of recreational plots in the cities. Hygiene standards set the requirements for water ponds, where beaches and batching places are planned to be equipped. Requirements for air quality, noise restrictions are defined in legal acts.
According to the National Sustainable Development Strategy, Lithuania aims to increase the Lithuanian forest area by 3 % by 2020 and to expand other areas of natural perennial vegetation; to reinforce the protection of the seacoast, the landscape of the coastal zone of the Curonian Lagoon and the marine ecosystem biodiversity; to combine this protection with their natural use for the benefit of society; and to protect and expand green areas and other natural areas of urbanized landscape.
4. FINANCING GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE
- Since the launch of the LIFE programme by the European Commission in 1992, a total of 17 projects have been financed in Lithuania. Of these, one focuses on environmental innovation and 14 on nature conservation, while one was implemented under the former LIFE Third Countries strand. Some of these projects have focused on protected areas and ecological networks (see project examples above). Altogether, LIFE projects in Lithuania represent an investment of €26 million, of which €16 million has been contributed by the EU (LIFE, n.d.).
- EU Structural and Investment Funds are an important source of funding for GI in Lithuania. In 2014–2020, around EUR 66 million are planned for protected areas management and GI solutions integration into landscape management at local level.
- The National Rural Development Programme for 2014-2020, approved in 2015, includes payments under the measure “Natura 2000 and Water Framework Directive Payments”. Under this measure, activities related to ensuring good protection condition of biodiversity, by identifying and adapting the economic activity possibilities and farming methods that would not endanger the ranges of individual species and habitats, and with growing public need of a clean and healthy environment, are supported. Another important field of support is protection of meadows, wetlands, habitats of endangered species, protection of water ponds against pollution and soil erosion, maintenance of drainage ditches and slopes, etc. The approved National Rural Development Programme amounts overall to EUR 1.613 billion. The planned spending on the ecosystem priority is EUR 0.431 billion, which represents 26.7% of the total budget, 11% of the total budget is dedicated to agri–environmental–climate measures.
5. CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR GI DEVELOPMENT
5.1 Best practice/points of excellence
Lithuanian cities are demonstrating positive action towards greening urban regeneration and the implementation of green infrastructure (see examples above).
According to Article 17 reports under the Habitats Directive, the main identified difficulties for implementing the required nature management activities for the Natura 2000 network in Lithuania are the lack of financial resources for the funding of surveillance of species and habitats as well as for activities related to habitat restoration and maintenance (EC, 2017).
According to Lithuania’s Action Plan on Conservation of Landscape and Biodiversity for the period 2015–2020, no single methodology has been adopted that could guide the formation of the nature frame and ecological networks at regional and local levels. Although the nature frame is formalised in municipal master plans, the solutions that ensure the maintenance of the ecological stability of landscape, the protection of natural landscape and natural recreational resources and the environmental regulation of landscape urbanisation, technological and agricultural development are not implemented in practice because of a lack of experience and financial support.
Lithuania has retained relatively high naturalness. Air, water, and soil condition of the country is assessed as good – there are no significant ecological problems. Considering this, Lithuania has the opportunity to develop the ecological compensation system based on the principle “where it is necessary” rather than “where it is left”. Renaturalization processes become more intensive in Lithuania due to the decrease of areas of agricultural lands. Permission for natural renaturalization processes in non-arable lands, ecologically sensitive areas (sandy soil, infertile soil, slopes susceptible to erosion or areas, where bogs form naturally), especially included in the nature frame, would ensure the achievement of GI aims at the lowest costs, however, it requires development of a compensatory mechanism, and political will.
In 2009–2017 the Integrated Marine and Inland water management programme has been implemented in Lithuania. The Programme consists of two pre-defined projects: Strengthening of marine and inland waters management capacities – part I (EUR 1,605,595) and Strengthening of marine and inland waters management capacities – part II (EUR 3,294,430). Part I includes: analysis of available data on priority substances, determination of pollution sources and amounts; monitoring of priority substances in water, bottom sediments and biota, as well as in wastewaters and wastewater sludge; assessment of water chemical quality, taking into account long-term data and results from implemented projects, trend analysis; preparation of optimized monitoring program for priority substances for period 2016-2021; preparation of proposals for measures to reduce the occurrence of priority substances in surface water bodies.The main objective of the part II project – is to improve the information about environment (water quality elements, land cover changes, international air pollution ir etc.), develop tools for the assessment of status of water bodies, implement measures for the improvement of status of water bodies and evaluate the effectiveness of these measures. Activities of the Project: assessment of changes in landscape structure; assessment of impacts on natural environment of long range transboundary and local air pollution and atmospheric pollution with radionuclides; collection of biological data and assessment of water body status; assessment of human activities impacts on water bodies, problem investigation and proposals for actions; implementation of measures to improve quality of water bodies as well as assessment of the effectiveness of these measures.
6. KNOWLEDGE BASE
Lithuania started the preparation of the National study on the distribution and state of the main ecosystem services on Lithuanian territory. The study is expected to provide the following:
- Assessment of the status of at least 24 main ecosystem services;
- At least 40 national maps of the distribution of the main ecosystem services in Lithuania;
- Methodological basis for the mapping and assessment of ecosystem services on national level;
- Suggestions on the main ways and measures to foster the integration of the ecosystem services approach into sectoral policies;
- Organization of national conference for stakeholders;
- Publication introducing ecosystem services concept and first results of the Study to policy makers, academia and general public
It is expected that the study results will considerably increase knowledge of ecosystem services in Lithuania and improve integration of biodiversity considerations into sectoral policies (BISE, 2017).
7. FURTHER RESOURCES AND PUBLICATIONS
Ministry of Environment of the Republic of Lithuania: http://www.am.lt/VI/en/VI/index.php
The Environmental Protection Agency : http://gamta.lt/cms/index?lang=en
State Service for Protected Areas under the Ministry of Environment: www.vstt.lt
8. LIST OF CONSULTED REFERENCES
Action Plan on Conservation of Landscape and Biodiversity (2015) Accessed 05.04.2017: https://www.cbd.int/doc/world/lt/lt-nbsap-v2-en.pdf
BISE (2017) Lithuania - Contribution to the mid-term review of the EU biodiversity strategy to 2020 based on the 5th national report to CBD, Accessed 04.04.2017: http://biodiversity.europa.eu/mtr/countries/lithuania
European Commission (2013). Green Infrastructure (GI) – Enhancing Europe’s Natural Capital. COM(2013) 249 final.
European Commission (2017) The EU Environmental Implementation Review Country Report – Lithuania. Accessed 04.04.2017: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/eir/pdf/report_lt_en.pdf
Factsheet on Lithuania developed by the EC financed project “Supporting the Implementation of Green Infrastructure”.
Fifth National Report on the Implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity Lithuania (2014) Accessed 29.03.2017: https://www.cbd.int/doc/world/lt/lt-nr-05-en.pdf
Latvia–Lithuania Programme (n.d.) Accessed 05.04.2017: http://2007-2013.latlit.eu/eng/supported_projects/lliv288_urban_green
LIFE Project Database (n.d.)."LIFE Buveinių tvarkymas - Restoration of degrading habitats of Community interest in the protected areas of Lithuania" Accessed 05.12.2016: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/life/project/Projects/index.cfm?fuseaction=search.dspPage&n_proj_id=4060
LIFE by country: Lithuania (n.d.) Accessed 18.04.2017: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/life/countries/lithuania.html
LIFE Project Database (n.d.)."LIFE ECONAT - Development of Pilot Ecological Network through Nature Frame Areas in Southern Lithuania" Accesssed 05.12.2016: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/life/project/Projects/index.cfm?fuseaction=search.dspPage&n_proj_id=3789
EEA and NORWAY GRANTS: http://www.eeagrants.lt/programos/projektai/program/1
Maes, J., Zulian, G. and Thijssen, M. (2017). Inception report: EnROUTE. Final draft version (10 February 2017)
Mierauskas, Pranas, and Arnas Palaima. "Ecological network in Lithuania: its development and implementation within the nature frame." Sustainable Development Strategy and Practise 1.6 (2012): 58-77.
National Environmental Protection Strategy (2015) Accessed 05.04.2017: http://www.am.lt/VI/en/VI/files/File/Aplinkos_ministerija_A-5_001-104psl-EN-press.pdf
National Strategy for Sustainable Development (2011) Available at: http://www.am.lt/VI/files/0.515592001408429196.pdf
Preparation of a National Study on the Distribution and state of the Main Ecosystems services on Lithuanian territory (EEA funded project) Accessed 11.04.2017 at: http://eeagrants.org/project-portal/project/LT03-0003
State Service for Protected Areas under the Ministry of Environment (n.d) Nature Frame. Accessed 05.04.2017: http://www.vstt.lt/en/VI/rubric.php?rubric_id=50