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To report on progress to the EU 2020 biodiversity strategy, the European Commission extracted relevant information from the EU Member States’ 5th national reports to the CBD. Of the 5 countries which had not finalized their national reports at the time of the synthesis (26th of August 2015), Greece, Malta, Portugal and Lithuania provided information to be included in the synthesis.
The 5th national reports were examined, and relevant information on selected actions under Targets 1-6 of the EU biodiversity strategy was directly copied. Thus, the information presented here is in the original language and wording of the 5th national reports.
The focus was on information that is particular to the respective Member State rather than referencing EU wide information. In addition, only information that is not directly reported to the European Commission by Member States was retrieved from the reports. Each Member State had the opportunity to review the synthesis of its report and to provide additional input. For more information, please view here. The 5th national report for Netherlands can be downloaded here.
EU target 1
Fully implement the Birds and Habitats Directives
(Please note that information from Member States in relation to Action 1a is supplied to the European Commission via other reports. To avoid duplication of reporting, information relating to Action 1a has not been included in this report
Action 1b: Natura 2000 (and other protected areas)
The measures under the EU Water Framework Directive and the so-called Delta Program will also enhance the resilience of wetlands in the Netherlands. The ambitious policy for the great waters of the Netherlands Delta (Min. EZ, 2013g) aims at restoring natural processes, improving biodiversity and adaptation to climate change. A process which goes beyond 2020.
- Forests and peat lands are the main ecosystems for potential carbon sequestration. Only 10.6% of the Netherlands land surface is forested (Probos, 2012). All forests are legally protected and sustainably managed.
- Restoration of peat lands in Natura 2000 sites are part of policy plans to contribute to Aichi target 15.
- Sensitive grasslands within the Natura 2000 sites will be protected by the new Common Agricultural Policy.
Action 1c: Natura 2000 (and other protected areas)
Many efforts are being carried out to complete and manage the National Ecological Network (NEN), including all Natura 2000 sites. This means restoration or reconversion of land into natural ecosystems and defragmentation of natural habitat.
The nature management plans and all efforts to minimise the anthropogenic pressures will eventually enhance the resilience of ecosystems.
EU target 2
Maintain and restore ecosystems and their services
The implementation of activities under this objective is fully in line with the operational objective of the National Biodiversity Conservation Plan 2005–2010. According to the Biological Diversity Act Bulgaria is obliged to establish a National Ecological Network that encompasses the Special Areas of Conservations (SACs, under Habitats Directive) and Special Protection Areas (SPAs, under Birds Directive)
The Dutch government and the provincial governments prepare the Programmatic Approach Nitrogen (PAS) in order to reduce nitrogen pollution mainly by intensive livestock breeding. Measures will be taken to reduce nitrogen emissions on the one hand and nature restoration measures on the other hand. Also, Member States of the EU are obliged to renew their action programme under the Nitrates Directive (ND; 91/676/EEG) every four years.
Despite the current focus on essential ecosystem services in the Netherlands their analysis and valuation is still at an early stage, as is the process towards their restoration and safeguarding.
Action 6b: Ecosystem restoration and green infrastructure
The on-going development of the National Ecological Network (NEN) has led to defragmentation of habitat and the development of new natural areas and has turned habitat loss into a habitat increase. Habitat loss by degradation is significantly reduced, mainly due to an improvement in environmental conditions such as desiccation and nutrient enrichment. However, environmental and spatial conditions are still insufficient to meet the biodiversity target set by the European Union for the Natura 2000 network of habitat types. About two thirds of nature reserves suffer from at least one pressure and mostly from a combination of nitrogen deposition and desiccation.
EU target 3
Increase the contribution of agriculture and forestry to maintaining and enhancing biodiversity
Target 3a: Agriculture
- With 60% of land-use, the agricultural sector dominates the landscape in the Netherlands (CBS et al. 2009). It is a highly mechanised and productive sector. The high productivity is however accompanied by high levels of external inputs like mineral fertilizer, manure, pesticides and energy, which also rank among the highest in the world (Wageningen UR, 2008). As such the agricultural sector is mainly responsible for the loss of natural habitat and decrease of environmental conditions in the Netherlands. (p.50)
- Since 1975 the Dutch government has supported biodiversity protection on agricultural land (‘relatienota’) and agricultural nature management remains an important part of the Dutch nature policy (Min. EZ & Min. I&M, 2013). The agri-environmental schemes are however currently being reconsidered. The policy to actively integrate nature management with intensive farming turned out to be not effective enough (Rli, 2013). Biodiversity on intensive farmland decreased dramatically, despite the efforts taken by many stakeholders involved to improve the situation (Rli, 2013). The Dutch Government generally acknowledged the conclusions from the RLi and, anticipating the forthcoming 2014 Nature Vision, it introduced five tracks, including one for agricultural nature conservation (2.5). (p.50)
- Several organisations consider the implementation of core areas for meadow birds as the only way to stop the dramatic population decline (Teunissen et al., 2012). Loss of biodiversity on farmland is a trend that can also be observed throughout Europe (fig. 8) and the EU CAP for 2014 – 2020 has therefore shifted its focus on animal and environmental care. Over the past three decades Dutch society has become more and more critical about the impact of the increasinglyintensified agriculture on landscapes, natural habitats and biodiversity. The Dutch generally not only expect the agricultural sector to produce sufficient and healthy food at acceptable prices, but this also has to be done in attractive rural area that allow people to enjoy recreate pursuits and to value nature (Wageningen UR, 2008). This changing attitude is among others reflected in an increasing demand for organic food products and consequently an increasing area of land used for organic farming (fig. 24). (p.50)
- The Dutch government regards organic agriculture as a good example of sustainable production and it is actively stimulating the growth of a professional organic agriculture sector (Wageningen UR, 2008). The Ministry of Economic Affairs assigned the Skal foundation as the certification and inspection body for organic production. The European logo for organic products was introduced in July 2010. In 2012 48.4 thousand hectares of land were used for organic farming which is still only 2.6% of the total land used within the agricultural sector (CBS et al., 2013e). As yet the principles of organic farming (SKAL eco label) include no targets or measures to support biodiversity conservation, in contrast to other labels like that of the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC6). Organic farming on average shows small positive effects on a number of individual flora and fauna species but the results are ambiguous. (p.51)
- The Netherlands give a high priority to greening of the EU common policies on agriculture and fisheries. This should eliminate, phase out or reform incentives that are harmful to biodiversity, while positive incentives are developed and applied. Time will show if this strategy has been effective. In 2010, large environmentally harmful subsidies were found particularly in the energy, transport and agricultural sectors, representing between 5 and 10 billion euros (PBL, 2011a). The Dutch Government could abolish certain environmentally harmful subsidies at a national level, but for competition reasons this would require agreements at a European or global scale. Examples are subsidies and tax breaks related to delivery vans, red diesel (used in forestry, agriculture, mobile machinery, railways, inland navigation and heating) and the low VAT tariffs on meat, dairy and fish (PBL 2011a). The tax break on red diesel was abolished on 1 January 2013 with the exception of ships other than recreational vessels.
- Besides these existing harmful incentives there are also a few new incentives harmful for biodiversity. The European Commission and a majority of European Agriculture Ministers for instance are now looking to gradually dismantle the European milk quota system by 2015. This will further increase agricultural production in the Netherlands and because there is a negative relationship between an increase of agricultural production and biodiversity (Kleijn, 2013) it is expected to have a negative impact on biodiversity if no compensation or mitigation measures are taken. The Dutch manure policy will be strengthened to mitigate the effects of an increase of agricultural production.
- Caribbean Netherlands - There has been no concrete reform of incentives to date. However, the Nature Policy Plan for the Caribbean Netherlands 2013-2017 (Min. EZ, 2013a) aims at mainstreaming of nature conservation and sustainable use in all sectors of society, such as the support for development of sustainable agriculture on the islands. This will require the reform of incentives harmful for biodiversity. (p.61)
- CBL has also formulated sustainability criteria for the generic pork and poultry meat assortment for the Dutch market. There is still a long way to go however before all meat offered in the Dutch market complies with sustainability standards.
- The population of birds on farmland is still decreasing and considerable efforts are being made to find a new system to improve biodiversity on farmland.
- Substantial progress could however be made by halving the consumption of meat and dairy products and less wastage of food in combination with more efficient production and improvement of animal welfare. This would result in an expected 30% less land-use compared to 2010 (PBL, 2013). The presently dominant position of agriculture in the Dutch landscape and the associated negative impacts on biodiversity make it clear that considerable efforts are still needed towards Aichi Target 7.
- The information provided under §2.4 illustrates that sustainability and biodiversity are more and more integrated within the agriculture, aquaculture and forestry sectors. For Aichi Target 7 the forestry (§2.4.2) and aquaculture (§2.4.4) sectors made considerable progress towards 2020. The agriculture sector is however less well developed in terms of reaching sustainability, in spite of all positive and substantial efforts such as the Common Agricultural Policy and Agri-Environmental schemes (§2.4.1).
- The Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency has drawn up the balance of progress made in the livestock sector over the past ten years. Unquestionably, the sector is moving towards greater sustainability in production and consumption, but developments are slow. The emissions of nitrogen and phosphates into the environment have decreased but are still above the critical limits (PBL, 2010b).
Target 3b: Forestry
- On June 20th 2013 the Green Deal ‘Promoting Sustainable Forest Management’ (“Bevorderen Duurzaam Bosbeheer”) was signed. As many as 27 public and private parties have collaborated in order to increase the proportion of wood from sustainably managed forests sold within the Dutch market.
- The Ministry of Infrastructure and Environment (Min. I&M) regards timber products as being sustainably produced if they carry a certification label approved by the Timber Procurement Assessment Committee (TPAC). To date the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification schemes (PEFC), Malaysian Timber Certification Scheme (MTCS) and Timber Legality & Traceability Verification (TLTV) are the only TPAC approved certification systems in the Netherlands. The forest area with a FSC label has been steadily increasing in the Netherlands from 35% in 2004 to 48% in 2011 (fig. 25). In 2011, 171.176 hectares of Dutch forests were being managed according to the FSC-standard7, including all forests managed by Staatsbosbeheer. (p.52)
- The self-sufficiency of Dutch forestry is rather low with only 8.0% of timber products coming from Dutch forests (Probos, 2012); meaning that the remaining 92% needs to be imported. The share of imported timber from sustainably managed forests is increasing. The government aimed for a 50% share of sustainably produced timber products (native and imported) within the Dutch market from 2011 onwards. This target was achieved; in 2011 65.7% of timber products available on the Dutch market was certified (23.7% FSC, 42% PEFC; Oldenburger et al., 2013). Most of it however originates from non-tropical forests. The tropical forests are generally regarded as biodiversity hotspots that can benefit from proper certification, while the amount of certified timber products from them is relatively low. However, the amount of certified timber products from tropical forests increased form 15 % in 2008 up to 39% in 2011 (Oldenburger et al., 2013). Tropical non-certified timber products often originate from illegally logged forests. (p.52)
Action 9a: Rural development and biodiversity
- Currently the impacts of pesticides on nature, especially on bees, receive special attention. The ‘Agenda Natural Capital 2013’ (Min. EZ & Min. I&M, 2013) drafts some concrete actions in relation to this matter. The Dutch government stimulates farmers to create arable field margins with wild flowers specially designed to facilitate functional agro-biodiversity, stimulates the use of nonchemical methods and farmers are required to use emission reducing techniques. Together with stakeholders the Dutch government will develop and implement an action plan regarding bee health.
- The Dutch government and the provincial governments prepare the Programmatic Approach Nitrogen (PAS) to reduce this pollution, mainly caused by agriculture (§2.3.3).On one hand measures are taken to reduce n+itrogen emissions, for instance by tightening the rules for building stables. On the other hand, nature restoration measures are taken to mitigate the effects on biodiversity such as additional vegetation management or improvement of the hydrology.
- Under Rural Development Plan 3 (RDP3), a significant sum of money will be set aside to help achieve ND and WFD goals.
- Many species are protected by specific measurements taken by NGO’s and many volunteers such as the protection of meadow bird nests against agricultural activities or to help toads cross the roads on their migration to mating places.
Action 9b: Rural development and biodiversity
- Governments, business and stakeholders at all levels are taking steps to achieve sustainable production and consumption. The Dutch government cooperates with the private sector through initiatives such as the Platform Biodiversity, Ecosystems and Economics (Platform BEE; a partnership involving government, companies and NGO’s), and the Green Deals programme. Major steps have also been taken to keep the impacts of use of natural resources within safe ecological limits, though concern still exists about the reform of the agricultural sector and the ecological footprint of the Netherlands, especially abroad.
- Caribbean Netherlands - Several studies have been carried out on aspects of some of the bigger issues in order to find out whether, for example, sustainable production of livestock fodder on Bonaire can be achieved through optimising the compost mixture for maximum production and a pilot agriculture project has been conducted. Due to the lack of (reasonably priced) fodder for the goats, the general practice is to let the goats roam free resulting in erosion and desertification of the land. The expectation is that when goat owners can feed their livestock for a reasonable price, they will be less inclined to let their goats roam free, thus decreasing the effects of overgrazing.
- Caribbean Netherlands - The Ministry of EZ is supporting the islands in developing small scale sustainable agriculture in order to reduce dependence on expensive importation of food, as well as to improve livestock management in order to reduce the numbers of free roaming livestock and reduce the serious impacts on nature of overgrazing.
Action 10: Agricultural genetic diversity
- The recent establishment of ‘Veldleeuwerik’, a coalition of farmers, biological seeds breeding companies and Integrated Pest Management (IPM) specialists, farm sector organisations, agri-businesses like Heineken Beer and provincial authorities aiming to promote sustainable agriculture, is considered a break through and an example of what can be accomplished in a short period of time in terms of increasing production and productivity when biological sub-sector players join forces. This can also create a new export market e.g. for biological seed breeding companies and IPM specialists. (p.51)
- The Centre for Genetic Resources, the Netherlands (CGN10) and the Dutch Rare Breed Survival Trust (SZH11) are the main organizations for the conservation of agro-genetic biodiversity. In 2002, the policy document Sources of Existence (Min. LNV et al., 2002) described the strategy and policy development in relation to genetic resources management.
- The Centre for Genetic Resources is responsible for the genetic resources programme. This programme aims at the conservation of ex situ resources of plants and animals, supports conservation of in situ resources, and stimulates the use of genetic resources on behalf of breeding and research as part of our cultural heritage.
- The status and trends on agro-genetic biodiversity in the Netherlands (§1.2.2) make clear that most cattle, horse, sheep, goat and other native breeds are currently still at risk in terms of their population size.
- As for livestock, a few commercial crops dominate the production process. Since 1970, a small number of crops have almost disappeared from production systems, including rye, oats, pulses, caraway, and fodder beets. The number of farms cultivating these crops and the number of varieties offered in the market has decreased to a similar extent. Whereas this trend commenced in the 1970s, a final reduction has taken place over the last decade. Substantial traditional crop diversity however is currently maintained in gardens, rather than on farms, and in-garden conservation of traditional varieties has been shown to represent a robust conservation system. The genetic diversity of crops that have almost completely disappeared from the Dutch farming systems is now largely conserved in ex situ collections in the Netherlands and abroad. Aichi Target 13 is still a concern. Though considerable efforts have been carried out to conserve the native livestock breeds and crops, many are still at risk.
- Caribbean Netherlands, Aruba, Curacao and Saint Maarten- Agro-genetic biodiversity is not an issue in the Caribbean Netherlands, nor Aruba, Curacao or Saint Maarten (see 1.2.2).
Action 11a and 11b: Forest holders and biodiversity
- In order to halt biodiversity loss, the Dutch provinces acquire land to be reconverted and developed for natural areas in order to enlarge and defragment the currently small and isolated ecosystems. The government subsidises nature management in natural and agricultural areas. Nature conservation organisations and, to a lesser extent, the agricultural sector and several other parties also cover part of the costs of nature and landscape conservation. Other financial sources for nature organisations are for example donations and lottery. Efforts aimed at increasing sources of finances are particularly focused on the development, wider implementation and acceptance of Innovative Financing Mechanisms (IFM‘s) and the mobilization and use of private funding sources. This is consistent with the principles of corporate social responsibility and sustainable production and consumption (the polluter pays principle) pursued by the Netherlands.
- Its main goal is to raise awareness among businesses of the importance of biodiversity and ecosystems and mainstreaming natural capital in company policy.
EU target 4
Ensure the sustainable use of fisheries resources and ensuring good environmental status of the marine environment
Action 14a: Adverse impacts on fish stocks, species, habitats and ecosystems
The Netherlands Government stimulates (technical) innovations which aim at more sustainable fisheries, while management plans for marine Natura 2000 sites are currently being developed to conserve marine biodiversity (for measures for shell fish, such as cockles and mussels. A pilot action is foreseen in 2015 to bring back shell banks in one of the protected sites, in order to restore biodiversity and the nursery function for fish species (Min. EZ & Min. I&M, 2013). In 2016 there will be a complete ban on bottom trawling in the coastal Natura 2000 sites of the North Sea Coastal Zone and Vlakte van de Raan, while shrimp fishing operations will be limited (VIBEG agreement).
Since 2011 the biodiversity and fisheries resources of the waters surrounding the islands of the Caribbean Netherlands, from the outer borders of the marine protected areas surrounding the islands to the outer borders of the Exclusive Economic Zone, are being jointly managed through a Memorandum of Cooperation (MoC) between the islands and the Netherlands. Fisheries monitoring programs have been initiated on the Saba Bank, Saint Eustatius and Bonaire to develop effective ecosystem-based management. Reasonable progress has been made on this target.
Aruba, Curacao and Saint Maarten Aruba:
Aruba actively contributed to a joint EEZ management plan funded and endorsed by the Ministry of Economic Affairs (Meesters et al., 2010). Aruba also has some fisheries laws in place but no recent advances have been made in terms of measures towards sustainable management of marine resources.
Curacao: Fisheries legislation is in place to reduce or forbid some of the most destructive gear and practices; however, no effective fishery monitoring or management is in place. The sport fishermen voluntarily release bill fish during tournaments to help conserve the species. Taking of turtles is forbidden by law. Enforcement of fisheries laws by the Coastguard is effective. Curacao actively contributed to a joint EEZ management plan funded and endorsed by the Ministry of Economic Affairs (Meesters et al., 2010).
Saint Maarten: Saint Maarten has recently instituted a marine park and has declared a shark fishing moratorium to protect this important resource for tourism. Enforcement of marine fisheries law and marine park protection by Coastguard and marine park wardens is good. Saint Maarten is an active partner towards a joint EEZ management plan as funded by the Ministry of Economic Affairs (Meesters et al., 2010).
EU target 5
Combat Invasive Alien Species
The number of alien plant and animal species in the Netherlands still increases. Because it is not clear when an alien species becomes invasive and it is difficult to eradicate them once settled, Dutch policy, since 2007, is focused on prevention. Prevention is mainly achieved by agreements (e.g. on the sale of invasive water plant species), and complementary to this, the Dutch Flora and Fauna Act prohibits the release of animal and plant species in the wild which makes it possible to act if invasive alien species are introduced. In some cases eradiction actions have been undertaken. In September 2013 the European Commission published a dedicated legislative instrument (regulation) on Invasive Alien Species. The Netherlands supports this initiative and will work together with the European Member States on the establishment of a list of invasive alien species of European interest.
EU target 6
Help avert global biodiversity loss
The Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL) has mapped the degraded areas worldwide. In cooperation with companies and other potential funders at least two pilot restoration projects will be implemented before 2015 (Min EZ & Min I&M, 2013). These pilots have to prove that businesses can and will contribute to ecosystem restoration and that degraded areas can be converted into a productive and biodiverse system with a well-balanced water table.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs promotes TEEB internationally and supports the World Bank to implement the WAVES programme, which aims to integrate Natural Capital Accounting in national accounts.
Action 17a, 17b & 17c: Drivers of biodiversity loss
In 2011 green taxes contributed almost 14% to the total tax revenue of the Netherlands. The revenues from green taxes have more than doubled since the late eighties (CBS et al, 2013a). In the policy note ‘Green Growth: for a strong, sustainable economy’ (Min. EZ, 2013c) the government aims for smart use of market incentives. Prices of goods and services should increasingly reflect the external impacts of production and consumption on nature and the environment. A smart combination of pricing (for example in taxation or the Emission Trading Scheme, ETS), innovation policy and selective public procurement will promote more sustainable production and will create markets for sustainable products and services.
The Nature Policy Plan for the Caribbean Netherlands 2013-2017 (Min. EZ, 2013a) aims at mainstreaming of nature conservation and sustainable use in all sectors of society, such as the support for development of sustainable agriculture on the islands. This will require the reform of incentives harmful for biodiversity.
Several studies have been carried out on aspects of some of the bigger issues in order to find out whether, for example, sustainable production of livestock fodder on Bonaire can be achieved through optimising the compost mixture for maximum production and a pilot agriculture project has been conducted.
The Ministry of EZ is supporting the islands in developing small scale sustainable agriculture in order to reduce dependence on expensive importation of food, as well as to improve livestock management in order to reduce the numbers of free roaming livestock and reduce the serious impacts on nature of overgrazing.
Aruba: Between 35 and 40 % of cardboard, aluminium and ferro metals are recycled; 18 % of electricity production is by wind and there has been an increase in solar energy production.
Aruba, Curacao and Saint Maarten actively contributed to a joint EEZ management plan funded and endorsed by the Ministry of Economic Affairs (Meesters et al., 2010).
Action 17a: Drivers of biodiversity loss
The information under Section 2.4 of the 5NR on the mainstreaming of biodiversity illustrates that a lot has been achieved in relation to consumption and production within relevant sectors like agriculture, forestry, fisheries and aquaculture. The Natural Capital Agenda is aimed at sustainable agriculture, fisheries and forestry by 2020.
Governments, business and stakeholders at all levels are taking steps to achieve sustainable production and consumption. The Dutch government cooperates with the private sector through initiatives such as the Platform Biodiversity, Ecosystems and Economics (Platform BEE; a partnership involving government, companies and NGO’s), and the Green Deals programme.
The Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs also supports the Fair Green Global Alliance (with Both ENDS, SOMO, Milieudefensie and others) contributing to poverty alleviation, advocating at various levels for more sustainable consumption and production and strengthening civil society organisations in (sub-)tropical developing countries.
The Dutch Food Retail Association (CBL), representing the food retailers and foodservice companies in The Netherlands, invest heavily in sustainability. In an action plan on fish the supermarkets agreed to sell only sustainable fresh and frozen fish by 2011. This means that all fish caught from 2011 had to comply with the standards of the MSC or equivalent. According to CBL about 85% of the freshly caught fish offered in the Dutch market is now MSC certified (or equivalent). Another aim is that by 2016 all farmed fish in the grocery stores meet the sustainability standard of the Aquaculture Stewardship Council (ASC) or equivalent. CBL has also formulated sustainability criteria for the generic pork and poultry meat assortment for the Dutch market. There is still a long way to go however before all meat offered in the Dutch market complies with sustainability standards.
Action 17c: Drivers of biodiversity loss
The Netherlands gives a high priority to greening of the EU common policies on agriculture and fisheries. This will eliminate, phase out or reform incentives that are harmful to biodiversity, while positive incentives are developed and applied. Large environmentally harmful subsidies are especially found in the energy, transport (red diesel) and agricultural sectors (low VAT on meat and dairy), in 2010, in the Netherlands, representing between 5 and 10 billion Euros (PBL, 2011a). The Dutch Government could abolish certain environmentally harmful subsidies at a national level, but for competition reasons this would require agreements at a European or global scale.
In the Netherlands in 2010, large environmentally harmful subsidies were found particularly in the energy, transport and agricultural sectors, representing between 5 and 10 billion Euros (PBL, 2011a). The Dutch Government could abolish certain environmentally harmful subsidies at a national level, but for competition reasons this would require agreements at a European or global scale.
The European Commission and a majority of European Agriculture Ministers for instance are now looking to gradually dismantle the European milk quota system by 2015. This will further increase agricultural production in the Netherlands and because there is a negative relationship between an increase of agricultural production and biodiversity (Kleijn, 2013) it is expected to have a negative impact on biodiversity if no compensation or mitigation measures are taken. The Dutch manure policy will be strengthened to mitigate the effects of an increase of agricultural production.
Regional governments have incorporated the NEN in their spatial plans since ca.1995, have organised financial compensation for nature management since 2007 and have developed a monitoring system to evaluate the efforts made.
The Netherlands has compiled data on biodiversity related Official Development Assistance ODA spending for the period 2006-2010 for the EU Monterrey Accountability Report. These figures can also be used to calculate the ODA component of the Dutch baseline for the CBD agreement on resource mobilization to support poor countries for the protection and sustainable use of their biodiversity.
Efforts aimed at increasing sources of finances are particularly focused on the development, wider implementation and acceptance of Innovative Financing Mechanisms (IFMs) and the mobilization and use of private funding sources. This is consistent with the principles of corporate social responsibility and sustainable production and consumption (the polluter pays principle) pursued by the Netherlands.
Its main goal is to raise awareness among businesses of the importance of biodiversity and ecosystems and mainstreaming natural capital in company policy. So far however, it has not been easy to assess the amount of private sector funding. The Netherlands has prepared the 2006-2010 baseline report in the framework of the CBD agreements on resource mobilization.
Current actions by the Netherlands are in line with the agreements made at COP 11 in terms of stabilising the level of spending for global biodiversity. In the coming years The Netherlands will develop a methodology to estimate the contributions of non-governmental players to the accomplishment of the Aichi targets.
The Netherlands signed the Nagoya Protocol in 2011 and the Dutch government supports initiatives in relation to Access and Benefit Sharing cooperation with third countries. The Nagoya protocol is expected to be in force and operational by 2015.