% of land,  % of marine waters are covered by protected areas.
  species and   habitats are protected under EU law

Latvia is a low-lying Baltic coastal country, with an terrestrial area of close to 64 000 km² and a marine areas close to 6 400 km². It is bordered by 4 other countries. The highest point is Gaiziņkalns at 312m. Latvia has a population of 1.9 million people and a population density of 30.4 people per km².

Protected areas

  Protected areas

 % of land

 % of marine waters

There are a total of   protected areas in ,   Natura 2000 sites -   Special Protection Areas (Birds Directive) and   Sites of Community Importance (Habitat Directive) - as well as   sites designated under national laws.


 % of the network is protected only through national laws

 % of the network consists solely of Natura 2000 sites

 % consist of and overlap between the two.

The average size of protected areas in Europe is lower compared to other regions of the world. This largely reflects the high degree of fragmentation of the land in Europe due to urbanisation, infrastructure and general intensification of land use. At a EU level 50% of protected areas have an area of less than 1 km². The 10 largest marine sites account for 68% of the marine area, while the 10 largest land sites account for 41% of the land area covered by protected areas

Size distribution of 's land protected areas network



Size distribution of 's marine protected areas network



Natura 2000 sites in cover   species and   habitats from the nature directives. The number of species and habitats protected in each site varies depending on the location of the site, the biodiversity in the region, the designation being used, and the features the site is being created to protect. For   sites there is only 1 feature being protected with   sites having more than 20 features.


Protected species

Species protected in under EU law are protected under the Habitats Directive and under the Birds Directive. The Habitats Directive has a total of 2 500 species on its list, the Birds Directive has a total of 500 species of wild birds protected.

  species protected under EU law in

  species are unique to

  species under the Habitats Directive

  species under the Birds Directive

Conservation status: Habitats Directive

 % of species are considered to be Good

 % of species are considered to be Poor

 % of species are considered to be Bad

 % of species are considered to be Unknown

Conservation Status by Taxa


Protected species composition by Taxa


Protected habitats

Habitats protected in under EU law are protected under the Habitats Directive. The Habitats Directive has a total of 233 habitats on its list.

  habitats protected under EU law in .

Conservation status: Habitats Directive

 % of habitats are considered to be Good

 % of habitats are considered to be Poor

 % of habitats are considered to be Bad

Conservation Status by Group

Habitat composition by Group








MAES in Latvia:

Latvia has carried out a MAES for its marine waters, including the internal marine waters, territorial waters and Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). It was performed in 2016 as one of the steps for implementation of the ecosystem based approach within development of the national Maritime Spatial Plan (MSP).

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Green infrastructure in Latvia:

Around 50% of Latvia’s territory is covered by forests, making it one of the greenest countries of the EU. The current Latvian Natura 2000 network has 333 sites (including seven marine areas); terrestrial Natura 2000 sites occupy 12% or 787,729 ha of the territory of Latvia. Nevertheless, data demonstrate that there is a decreasing connectivity between habitats (EEA, 2015). Currently in Latvia there are few plans or activities directly relating to Green Infrastructure, e.g., flood management in cities and Natura 2000 development. However, there is high potential for GI to be further developed through several existing programmes and policy areas.

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National Biodiversity strategy for Latvia:

To report on progress to the EU 2020 biodiversity strategy, the European Commission extracted relevant information from the EU Member States’ 5th national reports to the CBD. Of the 5 countries which had not finalized their national reports at the time of the synthesis (26th of August 2015), Greece, Malta, Portugal and Lithuania provided information to be included in the synthesis.

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